The Osservatorio di Pavia was founded in 1994 by C.A.R.E.S. (Cooperative for Social and Economical Analysis and Research) together with a group of professors of Social Sciences of the University of Pavia. Since then, it has become an internationally recognised institute for the analysis and research on mass communication and election campaigns. The institute is an independent non-profit organisation. It employs some 30 researchers and a network of scholars in social and media studies. The main objective of CARES / Osservatorio di Pavia is the safeguard of social, cultural and political pluralism in the field of mass media through the elaboration of methodologies of research and analysis. Osservatorio di Pavia is engaged in a wide range of researches on specific areas of mass communication, including political communication, gender equality, cultural diversity, agenda setting, political pluralism, Journalistic standards, hate speech and conflict prevention through the monitoring of the media (both, old and new media).